This section should include information from and including Franklin Roosevelt to and including Harry S. Truman.

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The Great Depression and the New Deal

I. The Great Depression
- In October of 1929 a stock market crash galvanized the greatest depression the United States had ever seenDepression.jpg
- Despite his good intentions Herbert Hoover (president at the time) was unable to alleviate the economic distress of the nation
  • Because they blamed him for the depression, Americans began using “Hoover” as a prefix for signs of poverty such as shantytowns called Hoovervilles
- In 1932 Democrat Franklin D Roosevelt was elected president under the “New Deal” platform which inspired hope to end the country’s economic misfortunes

II. The New Deal Begins
- The Three R’s: Relief, Recovery, Reform
- Brain Trust: FDR’s inner circle of unofficial advisors, including Rex G. Tugwell, Ray Moley, George Peek, and Hugh Johnson
- 100 Days (1933)
  • a special session of Congress which passed a massive volume of legislation laying the foundation for the New Deal
  • Fun Fact: the 100 days actually only lasted for 99
- By 1933 US banks faced a crisis where they could no longer meet the demands of their depositors
  • Emergency Banking Relief Act (1933): provided for gov inspection of banks to restore public faith
  • “Bank Holiday”: (1933) FDR closed banks and forbade the export of or redemption of currency in gold
  • Glass Stegall Banking Reform Act (1933): created the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (FDIC) which insured deposits up to $5000
  • Fun Fact: by 1933 a total of 10,951 American banks failed
- “Fireside Chats”: to restore moral FDR personally delivered 30 radio addresses
- Home Owners’ Loan Corporation (HOLC) (1933): could borrow money to refinance home mortgages and prevent foreclosures
- Truth in Securities Act (1933): required full information about stocks and bonds to be provided to potential purchasers
- On March 6, 1933 FDR took the nation off the gold standard newdeal2.gif

III. Alphabet Soup
- “Alphabet Soup” - a series of acts and federal agencies designed to create jobs and provide relief
- Agricultural Adjustment Administration (AAA) (1933) headed by George Peek, tried to reduce output of certain overproduced farm products
  • the AAA was declared unconstitutional in January 1936
- National Industrial Recovery Act (NIRA) (1933): drew up a business cold for industry setting minimum prices and wages, maximum work hours, and production limits, said that unions could bargain collectively, and established the NRA
  • National Recovery Administration (NRA): headed by Hugh Johnson to enforce NIRA
  • Schecter v. United States (1935): declared NIRA unconstitutional
- Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) (1933): built 20 damns for hydroelectric power and to prevent flooding, engaged in reforestation, fought against unsuccessfully by private power companies
- Public Works Authority (PWA) (1933): built bridges, dams, and schools
- Civilian Conservation Corps (CCC) (1933): conservation projects
- Federal Emergency Relief Administration (FERA) (1933): relief from unemployment and drought

IV. The Second New Deal (Alphabet Soup Continues)
- The first part of the New Deal was aimed mostly at combatting the depression, in 1935 FDR brought the agenda into a new phase
- Works Progress Administration (WPA) (1935): headed by Harry Hopkins, employed people for 30 hours a week, consisted of various parts including:
  • Federal Arts Project - hired artists, musicians, dancers, etc.
  • National Youth Administration (NYA) (1935): part time jobs for students so they could continue education, not find permanent jobs
- Wagner Act (1935): established the National Labor Relations Board (NLRB) to oversee and insure fairness in labor management relations
- Social Security Act (1935): created a retirement plan for age 65 and older
  • Fun Fact: prolonged life expectancy since the start of the social security act may result in a crisis in our lifetime
- Revenue Act(1935): graduated income tax WPA.jpg

V. End of the New Deal
- FDR won the Election of 1936 against Republican governor Alfred Landon of Kansas
- Court Packing Scheme: FDR proposed the Judicial Reorganization Bill to allow the president to name a new federal judge for each justice that didn’t retire by age 70 (which included 6 current justices)
  • FDR lost major support, even that of the Democratic Congress, although the court did start to vote more liberally
- “Roosevelt Recession” (1937-38): after the initial relief of the New Deal the economy briefly slipped but began to recover after FDR received more money from Congress for his public works programs
- Second Agricultural Adjustment Act (1938): soil conservation payments, quotas on certain crops
- Fair Labor Standards Act (1938): minimum wage, gradual reduction of work week, and time and a half for overtime, prohibited interstate commerce of manufactured goods on which children under age 16 worked

VI. New Deal Opposition
- Huey Long
  • Louisiana Senator called “the Kingfish”
  • Share Our Wealth Society - called for confiscation for fortunes over $5 million and a minimum income of $2000
  • assassinated in 1935 and followed by inadequate successor Gerald Smith
- Father Coughlin: weekly radio program, advocated an inflationary policy
VI. Social Aspects of the New Deal
- Blacks
  • about 40% were sharecroppers who suffered form the AAA
  • FDR was afraid to endorse anti-lynching bill
  • Eleanor Roosevelt and Harold Ickles supported a “black Cabinet” of advisors in the Interior Department
  • Philip Randolph of Brotherhood of Sleeping Car Porters proposed a black march on Washington, to prevent this FDR created the Fair Employment Practices Committee (1941)
- Native Americans
  • replacement of Dawes Servility Act with Indian Reorganization Act (1934):restored tribal ownership of lands, provided loans, etc.
  • Indian Emergency Conservation Program: a Native American CCC
- Mexican Americans
  • benefitted least from New Deal
  • Fun Fact - From 1930 1940 the Mexican American population dropped almost 40%
- Women
  • in 1930 10.5 million women comprised 29% of the workforce, in -10 years this number rose to 13 million and 35%
  • areas of female employment like retail sales were not hit as hard as mean’s jobs in heavy industry
  • in 1933 Frances Perkins became the first female Cabinet member

VII. Labor in the New DealHamlet-AFL-CIO.gif
- by 1933 labor unions lost significant membership
- after the NIRA membership rose 1.5 million, the NLRB also inspired more members to join
- Conflict within labor unions
  • the American Federation of Labor was mostly craft unions
  • some leaders like John J. Lewis (United Mine Workers) wanted to include mass production industry
- In 1935 Lewis and others broke away forming the Committee for Industrial Organization (CIO)
- although the AFL ordered the CIO to disband they only reorganized as the Congress of Industrial Organizations
- Fun Fact : the CIO popularized the sit-down strike, the largest of which included 400,000 workers in a GM plant in Flint, Michigan

Shadows of War

I. London Economic Conference (Summer of 1933)
- Delegates hoped to revive the international economy from depression by stabilizing values of various nations’ currencies and settling on reliable exchange rate.
- Roosevelt pulls out of conference
  • because he wanted to pursue inflationary policies to stimulate American recovery.
  • possibility that the conference would tie down the American dollar and hold back the American economy
- Collapse of London Conference
  • Further hurt the international economy
  • Strengthened global trend for nationalism & American isolationismexternal image 43042102.GIF

II. Philippines & Russia
- Philippines becomes an expensive liability for Americans
  • Organized labor despised low wage Pilipino workers
  • American sugar production despised Pilipino competition
- Freeing the Philippines
  • Tydings- McDuffie Act (1934) provided for the independence of the Philippines after a 12 year period of economic and political tutelage
  • US would relinquish army, but not naval bases
- Roosevelt formally recognizes Soviet Union (1933)
  • Possible trade partner
  • Possible ally against German and Japanese threat

III. Latin America
- Roosevelt declared a “Good Neighbor Policy” towards Latin America
  • Protect Latin America against European Dictators
  • Establish defense of democracy along Western Hemisphere
  • Renounce Roosevelt Corollary of Monroe Doctrine

IV. Foreign Trade
- Secretary of State Hull aided in passing Reciprocal Trade Agreements Act (1934) to lower tariff for increased trade
  • In response, other nations would also lower tariffs
  • Hopeful reduction of international depression
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V. The Threat of Foreign Dictators
- Benito Mussolini (Fascist)- Italy
  • Wanted African empire and attacked Ethiopia in 1935. League could have stopped them (by an oil embargo) but didn’t to avoid hostilities.
- Adolph Hitler (Nazi) – Germany
  • Pulled out of League of Nations in 1933 and began rearming Germany
  • Violated Treaty of Versailles
    1. 1936, occupied Rhineland
    2. March 1938, occupied Austria
    3. Obtained Czechoslovakia’s Sudetenland via the 1938 Munich Conference
- Japan
  • Pulled out of League in 1935
  • Signed Tripartite Pact to join arms with Italy and Germany in 1940
- American response of neutrality
  • Neutrality Acts of 1935,1936 & 1937 said that Americans couldn’t sail on belligerent ships, sell or transport munitions or make loans to belligerent nations
  • US sat idly by while democratic Spain went though civil war and was taken over by eventual dictator, General Francisco Franco
  • Isolationism/ Appeasement
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VI. Beginnings of War
- Hitler- Stalin Pact (Aug 23, 1939)
  • Meant Hitler could make war on Poland and Western democracies
  • Hitler invaded Poland on September 1, 1939 à Britain and France declared war
  • Congress issues Neutrality Act of 1939- Britain and France could buy American war materials only on a “cash and carry” basis
- Fall of France (1940)
  • Caused scare amongst Allies because they feared that German soldiers would be taught how to operate the French fleet and would take and use the French fleet against the Allies.
  • Churchill threatened France to turn over their fleet to the U.S or Great Britain. Churchill attacked France and then the French sent most ships to American ports.
  • Cause for resistance from France when American and British troops landed in Africa.
- US Preps for possible war
  • Alarmed the US into spending $37 billion in arming for war
  • Congress passed America’s first peacetime-draft (September 6, 1940)
- US- Britain “Destroyer Deal” of 1940
  • US transfers 50 left over destroyers from WWI
  • British hand over 8 defensive military bases along the cost of the Americasexternal image 9114111a.gif
- Lend- Lease Bill (1941)
  • Allowed US to lend arms to overseas democracies and at the end of the war, the used weapons, or the equivalent, would be returned
  • Fun Fact: By the end of the war, the US had sent about $50 billion worth of arms and equipment to Europe... more than the cost of WWI to the US!
  • Put the nation in gear for all-out war production
  • Provoked German aggression: On May 21, 1941, the Robin Moor (an unarmed American merchant ship) was torpedoed by a German submarine

VII. Election of 1940
-Wendell L. Willkie (Republican) Vs. FDR (who wins 499 to 82 electoral)

VIII. End of US Neutrality
- June 2, 1941 Hitler launches attack on Soviets
  • FDR interpreted Lend-Lease to send aid to Soviets ($11 billion total)
- Atlantic Conference of 1941
  • British Churchill and FDR metexternal image pearl-harbor.jpg
  • Produced the Atlantic Charter, later upheld by Soviet Union
    1. Opposed imperialistic annexations
    2. Promised no territorial changes contrary to the wishes of the inhabitants (aka self determination) & governments chosen by inhabitants)
    3. Establishment of a new League of Nations
- July 1941 US agrees to escort “lend- lease” destroyers as far as Iceland and British would take it from there because of excessive German submarine attacks
- FDR proclaims a “shoot on sight” policy towards German submarines after excessive attacks on American convoys
- Congress votes in November 1941 to cancel Neutrality Act of 1939
  • Merchant ships could henceforth be legally armed
- Pearl Harbor attacked by Japanese, December 7, 1941
  • 3,000 casualties and numerous destroyed ships and aircrafts
  • US officially provoked to a declaration of war on December 11, 1941

World War II

I. US Entry Into WWII
- Before the US entered, Germany had taken over most of Europe.
- Fun Fact: to avoid further trench warfare, after WWI France built a huge series of tunnels and barbed wire along its border, but
apparently France forgot Germany’s WWI strategy of sweeping through Belgium, which Hitler repeated and by-passed this
Maginot Line.
external image 250px-PanzerInfantryAdvance.jpg- Throughout the war, Germany relied on a strategy of blitzkrieg warfare- sending in planes for bombing raids first,
followed by tanks, and finally by infantry
- Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor Dec. 7, 1941 caused FDR to formally declare war on the Axis powers
  • Because of Japan’s attack, 110,000 Japanese-Americans were forced to relocate to internment camps, a move justified
by Korematsu v. US.
- FDR decided to “get Germany first” to save Europe, and then attack Japan
- Unprovoked attack quieted anti-war protesters
- Economy switched to full war production, causing the true end of the Great Depression

II. US Homefront
- War Production Board- halted manufacture of luxury items, imposed a national speed limit and gasoline rationing
- Office of Price Administration- regulated soaring crop prices
- Goods were rationed
- Smith-Connally Anti-Strike Act- authorized government to seize and run industries threatened with or under strikes
external image bostonflag.jpg - Women replaced men who had gone to war in factories, but around 2/3 of those women gave up their jobs at wars’ end
- Bracero Program- brought in Mexican farmers to fill the gaps servicemen left
- Philip Randolph, leader of the Brotherhood of Sleeping Car Porters, threatened a “Negro March to Washington” in 1941 to get
better rights and treatment.
- Fair Employment Practices Commission- curb racism and oppression in the workplace
- Congress of Racial Equality- founded in 1942
- Mass exodus of blacks from the south caused many race riots (LA, Detroit, etc)
- US was the only nation to end the war with little damage to its lands
- GNP doubled, total cost of the war was more than $330 billion- mostly paid for by loans- national debt went from $49 billion to
$259 billion

III. Get Germany First
- At first, German U-boats were a problem, but after the German “enigma” code was broken, it was easier to pinpoint U-boats
- May 1942- British launched a raid on Cologne, France. August- US gave air support
- “Desert Fox” Marshall Edwin Rommel- German, drove troops through to Egypt and close to the Suez Canal. Oct. 1942- British
General Bernard Montgomery defeated him at El Alamein
- Soviets launched a huge counteroffensive, regaining 2/3 of the land they lost the year before
- USSR begged Allies to open a second front, and Britain devised an invasion through N. Africa, which utterly failed
- Casablanca Conference- FDR and Churchill agreed to demand “unconditional surrender” from the Axis powers
- Italian Campaign
  • Sicily fell in Aug. 1943
  • Mussolini was deposed, and in 1945 he and his mistress were lynched
  • Allies continued to push northward, took Rome on June 4, 1944, and finally received total Italian surrender on May 2, 1945
  • Served as a psuedo-second front, but was not what the Soviets wanted
- D-Day: June 6, 1944
  • Tehran Conference- FDR, Churchill, and Stalin agreed to launch simultaneous attacks
  • General Eisenhower was left in charge, and launched an amphibious assault on Normandy Beach in France. After heavy
resistance and huge losses, the Allies managed to get into France
  • Paris was liberated in Aug. 1944 with help from the French underground
  • Fun Fact: soldiers waiting to arrive at Normandy beach by boat could hear bullets pinging off the sides of the all metal
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IV. Election of 1944
- Republicans: Thomas E. Dewey (liberal) with isolationist John W. Brickner
- FDR was nominated for a 4th term, with Harry S. Truman. Truman was chosen over Henry A. Wallace because Wallace was slightly unbalanced
- Dewey went around making many speeches, while FDR made few speeches while he dealt with WWII
- Political Action Committee- branch of CIO- contributed money for Dewey. Was created to get around the law banning direct donations of union funds for politics
- Not smart to “change horses midstream”- FDR won 432 to 99

V. Germany Fallsexternal image holocaust2.jpg
- Forced to retreat, Hitler concentrated his forces in the Ardennes Forest
- Battle of “the Bulge”
- Dec. 16 1944, German forces in the Ardennes Forest were finally stopped by the 101st Airborne Division at Bastogne after 10 days. The 101st was commanded by Brigadier General A.C. McAuliffe.
- March 1945, Allies reached the Rhine R., pushed towards the Elbe R., joined with Soviet troops, and marched toward Berlin
- The Holocaust
  • Since before the war started, Hitler began carrying out his plan to eliminate all people who were not members of the “Aryan race,” known as the “master plan”
  • Hitler established many death/concentration camps across Germany where 6 million Jews and 1 million other “undesirables” were slowly starved, forced to work, died of disease, or killed in gas chambers

VI. Get Japan Second
- Japanese invaded too many Pacific Islands for the US to remove, so a strategy of Island Hopping developed
- US only attacked key points and skipped islands where the Japanese held strong defensive positions
- Major Japanese Atrocity
  • Bataan Death March : 85 mile march designed to kill all US servicemen and any Filipinos who helped them
  • Midway : US Admiral Chester W. Nimitz forced the Japanese back (June 3-6, 1942)
    • halted Japanese expansion= major turning point
- Navajos and Comanches were used as “code talkers”
  • they communicated to one another in their native languages, codes the Axis Powers never managed to break
- American wins and gains: Guadalcanal
  • August 1942, New Guinea
  • August 1944, Attu and Kiska (Aleutian Islands)
  • August 1943, Makin and “Bloody Tarawa (Gilbert Islands)
  • November 1943, Marshall Islands
  • Jan and Feb 1944, Marianas
- June 1944. US used islands as bases for massive bombing raids over Japan
- March 9-10, 1945 firebomb raid on Tokyo killed over 83,000
- General MacArthur retook Manila in the Philippines in March 1945
- Battle of Leyte Gulf : terminated Japan’s status as a sea power
- March 1945: 25 day assault on Iwo Jima by the US was successful, though 4,000 American troops died
- Okinawa was captured in June 1945 after 3 months of fighting, with 50,000 US casualties, many due to Japanese “kamikaze” pilots
- Potsdam Conference: Allies issued an ultimatum to Japan: surrender or be destroyedexternal image Atomic%20Bomb.gif
- First A-bomb test on July 16, 1945 was successful, and after Japan refused to surrender, the US dropped one onto Hiroshima (Aug, 6, 1945), killing 180,000, and one onto Nagasaki (Aug. 9, 1945), killing 80,000
- Aug. 8, 1945 the USSR declared war on Japan, as promised
- Aug. 10, 1945: Japan agreed to peace only of Emperor Hirohito could remain on the throne (figurehead)
- Though it wasn’t really unconditional, the Allies accepted, and the formal surrender occurred on Sept. 2, 1945, on the USS Missouri
- Fun Fact: some Japanese soldiers were so isolated in certain Pacific islands that they stayed for years after peace was declared, simply because they never heard about it

VII. The War Ends- The US had 1 million casualties, but because of medical advances (penicillin and other antibiotics, blood plasma) the number killed by disease and infections was low
- The US was the only nation to escape unscathed- the only attacks on the home front were Pearl Harbor, and two minor attacks on California and Oregon
- WWII was America’s best fought war, even though it began preparing later than usual

The Post WWII Era

I. The Immediate Aftermath
- Fear of another depression
-Real gross National Product (GNP) drops
- Inflation: prices up 33%
- Strikes: 4.6 million workers go on strike
- GI Bill or Servicemen’s Readjustment Act of 1944: passed to help veterans readjust to society; paid for schooling for soldiers to get jobs
- Veterans Administration: Loans to buy homes, farms, businesses, etc.

II. Prosperity Returns
- Economy rejuvenates in late 40s and early 50s.
  • GNP rises
  • National income doubles in 50s, and again in 60s
- Baby Boom: Huge increase in marriage and birthrates
- Rise of middle class: 60% of 1950s America; white collar and upper blue-collar workers
- New suburban culture: home to new middle class
  • “Levittown”: coined by William Levitt on LI; mass produced, cheap homes outside cities
  • Increased necessity of cars for transport
  • Consequently, as mostly whites migrate to suburbs, blacks from South migrate to formerly white northern urban neighborhoods.
- Lack of consumer goods and savings from war produce large demand for consumer goods including televisions, washing machines, cars, and other items.
- The Sunbelt region – Virginia to Florida to Texas to Arizona to California — rises in prosperity, thanks to warm climate, lower taxes, and economic opportunity.
Fun Fact: I Love Lucy first aired in 1951.

^pictured above: a collection of television adds from the time period

III. Truman: Finishing FDR’s term
- After death of FDR in 1945, Truman leads US through end of WWII—makes decision to drop atomic bombs on Japan.
- Attempts to continue New Deal policies of reform.
  • Employment Act of 1946 creates Council of Economic Advisers to help with economic issues.
  • Supports national health insurance, increase in minimum wage, and maintenance of full employment.
- First “Civil Rights” president
  • Committee on Civil Rights (1946): strengthens Justice Dept. with civil rights; aids desegregation of schools
  • 1948- End of racial segregation in federal government and armed forces
- Actual reforms prove difficult thanks to election of Republican Congress in 1946.
  • 22nd Amendment: 2 terms only for president; passed 1951
  • Taft-Hartley Act: (1947) anti-labor; outlawed “closed” shop, unions now responsible for damages from disputes among selves, non-communist required from leaders; passes over Truman’s veto by Republican Congress
IV. Election of 1948
- Harry Truman (Democrat) defeats Thomas Dewey (Republican) largely thanks to South, Midwest, and West.
- Other parties: Dixiecrats with J. Strom Thurman; Progressives with Henry Wallace
-Fun Fact:Fun Fact: The “S” in “Harry S Truman” does not actually stand for a name.

V. The Fair Deal
- Truman proposed a reform program that ultimately failed thanks to foreign policy concerns and refusal of Congress to pass measures. Included ideas for national health care, education and civil rights legislation, and farm and housing measures.

VI. Reshaping The Post-WWII World
- Creation of United Nations – 2 main parts·
-Goal: prevent another war
  • Security Council with the Big Five Powers -- US, Britain, USSR, France, and China – all with veto power. No action could be taken without their consent.
  • Assembly: smaller countries
  • Warmly embraced by US, unlike League of Nations in 1919
  • Partially successful? Successful in creating international social aid organizations (UNESCO, FAO, WHO), but would fail to unite nations in areas such as atomic technology.
- International Monetary Fund (1944): regulated currency exchange rages; established World Bank
  • Capitalistic in nature; Soviets refuse to participate
- Germany Nuremberg Trials punish top Nazi leaders
- Germany also divided into 4 military occupation zones: British, French, American, and Soviet. However, Soviet region would soon fall behind “iron curtain.”

VII. Truman’s Foreign Policy and the Beginnings of the Cold WarMarshallbike.jpg
- Although they had worked together to defeat Germany and Japan and in rebuilding, US and the USSR now become opposing superpowers— “Democracy and capitalism vs. despotism and communism”
- 1946: British Prime Minister Winston Churchill delivers “iron curtain” speech calling for stop of communist expansion.
- Truman embraces idea of containment in Europe
  • Containment: idea coined by George Kennan; Communism is expansionary and can be stopped by “firm and vigilant containment”
  • Truman DoctrineTruman Doctrine: (1947) request to Congress for $400 million dollars in aid to Greece and Turkey to prevent their collapse to communism
    1. Open commitment for United States to “support free peoples” in similar situations
    2. Critics: Too exaggerated a claim? Might have possibly hurt Soviet-American relations further.
  • Marshall PlanMarshall Plan: Provision of economic aid to European nations for economic recovery; called for $12.5 billion over 4 years of aid

    1. Extremely successful: revived European economies and accomplished alterior motive of stopping rise of communism.
    2. Extended to Soviets; Soviets refused

Practice Questions

1. Franklin Roosevelt refused to support the London Economic Conference because
A. its members insisted on rigid adherence to the gold standard.
B. any agreement to stabilize national currencies might hurt America’s progress toward recovery from depression.
C. such an agreement would involve the United States militarily with the League of Nations.
D. the delegates refused to work on reviving international trade.

2. In part, Franklin Roosevelt embarked on the Good Neighbor Policy because
A. he was eager to enlist Latin American allies to defend the Western Hemisphere against European and Asian dictators.
B. Congress had repealed the Monroe Doctrine.
C. he feared the spread of communism in the area.
D. it was part of the neutrality stance taken by the United States.

3. The 1934 Reciprocal Trade Agreement Act
A. raised America’s tariff schedule.
B. inhibited President Roosevelt’s efforts to implement his Good Neighbor policy.
C. increased America’s foreign trade.
D. was most strongly opposed in the South and far West.

4. From 1925 to 1940 the transition of American policy on arms sales to warring nations was in this sequence:
A. embargo to lend-lease to cash-and-carry.
B. cash-and-carry to lend-lease to embargo.
C. lend-lease to cash-and-carry to embargo.
D. embargo to cash-and-carry to lend-lease.

5. America’s neutrality during the Spanish Civil War of 1936—1939 allowed
A. Hitler to conquer Spain.
B. the Loyalists to win the war.
C. Roosevelt and Franco to become personal friends.
D. Spain to become a fascist dictatorship.

6. The Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor in 1941 came as a great surprise because
A. President Roosevelt suspected that if an attack came, it would be in Malaya or the Philippines
B. there was no way of knowing the Japanese were provoked enough to start a war
with the United States.
C. Japanese communications were in a secret code unknown to the United States.
D. The United States was, at the time, Japan’s main source of oil and steel.

7. Franklin D. Roosevelt was LEAST successful in securing congressional support for which of the following?
A. Negotiation of tariff agreements by the executive department
B. Reduction of the gold content of the dollar
C. Removal of the restraints of the antitrust acts to permit voluntary trade associations
D. Adoption of processing taxes on agricultural products
E. Reform of the judiciary to permit the enlargement of the Supreme Court

8. Franklin D. Roosevelt’s farm policy was primarily designed to
A. reduce farm prices to make food cheaper for the consumer
B. increase production my opening new lands to farmers
C. reduce production in order to boost farm prices
D. use price and wage controls to stabilize farm prices
E. end federal controls over agriculture

9. The main purpose of the Wagner Act (National Labor Relations Act) of 1935 was to
A. end the sit-down strike in Flint, Michigan
B. settle the struggle between the American Federation of Labor and the Congress of Industrial Workers
C. guarantee workers a minimum wage
D. ensure workers’ right to organize and bargain collectively
E. exempt organized labor from the Sherman Antitrust Act

10. American participation in the Second World War had which of the following major effects on the home front?
A. A temporary movement of women into heavy industry
B. The breakdown of racial segregation in the South
C. The growth of isolationism in the Midwest
D. The introduction of a system of national health insurance
E. A decline in farmers’ income

11. Which of the following was the LEAST important consideration in the United States’ decision to drop the atomic bombs on Japan in August 1945?
A. Dropping the bombs would be a powerful argument to the Japanese government to cease fighting
B. Dropping the bombs would presumably shorten the war and therefore save the lives of American soldiers that would be lost in an invasion of the Japanese homeland
C. Scientists wished to demonstrate to Congress that the $2 billion spent, after long debate, on the six-year Manhattan Project had not been wasted
D. Scientists could propose no acceptable technical demonstration of the atomic bomb likely to convince Japan that further fighting was futile
E. The President and the State Department hoped to end the war in the Far East without Soviet assistance

12. Most of Truman's Fair Deal program:
A. Met defeat at the hands of a coalition of Republicans and Southern Democrats
B. Was defeated by filibuster tactics
C. Was passed by a combination of liberal Republicans and Northern Democrats
D. Was passed long after debate

13. The Taft-Harley Act of 1947 provided for all of the following EXCEPT:
A. Permitting employers to sue unions
B. Requiring a 60 day cooling off period
C. Permitting union contributions to political campaigns
D. Requiring unions to make public financial statements
E. Requiring union leaders to take oaths that they were not communist party members

14. All these statements about the 1948 presidential election are true EXCEPT:
A. The Dixiecrats were a group of Southern Democrats who would not support Truman
B. Truman was a heavy favorite to defeat his Repuhblican rival Governor Thomas Dewey of New York
C. Henry Wallace broke from the Democratic party and became a candidate on the Progressive party ticket.
D. Not only did Truman win the election, but his party made gains in both houses of Congress and picked up most of the governorships.
E. The Democrats lost electoral votes from states once known as the "Solid South"

15. “The productive methods and facilities of modern industry have been completely transformed. . . . Skilled artisans make up only a small proportion of the workers. Obviously the bargaining strength of employees, under these conditions, no longer rests in organizations of skilled artisans. It is dependent upon a national union representing all employees — whether skilled or unskilled, or whether working by brain or brawn —in each basic industry.”
The statement above best represents the views of
A. Emma Goldman
B. William Green
C. Jane Adamd
D. Bernard M. Baruch
E. John J. Lewis

16. Which of the following was NOT a reason given by President Franklin Roosevelt in his attempt to "pack" the Supreme Court?:
A. he believed he had a mandate after the 1936 election.
B. the Court was declaring too many New Deal programs unconstitutional.
C. most of the Supreme Court justices were conservative.
D. he wanted to ease the work load of the Court's older members.
E. most Supreme Court justices were interpreting the Constitution too broadly.

17. The primary purpose of the Public Works Administration and the Works Progress Administration was?:
A. to provide employment through federal deficit spending.
B. to replace private enterprise, which had failed so dramatically in 1929.
C. to enable industries to plan production and control prices.
D. to nationalize the government's control of the work force.
E. to provide jobs for African Americans and other minorities.

18. In order to deal with the crisis in banking at the time of his inauguration, Franklin Roosevelt?:
A. drastically curtailed government spending and cut taxes.
B. announced a multi-billion dollar federal bailout package.
C. urged Congress to pass legislation banning fractional reserve banking and holding bank trustees responsible for all deposits.
D. declared a four-day "banking holiday" and prohibited the export of money.
E. announced the nationalization of all banks with over $100 million in total assets.

19. During the years of the Great Depression and the New Deal, Blacks?:
A. benefited from having a friend in the White House, Eleanor Roosevelt, who could speak and act independently in support of black goals.
B. did not continue to migrate to northern cities because there were no jobs.
C. benefited from the civil rights bills passed by Congress with Franklin Roosevelt's urging.
D. tended to vote for the Republican Party because the Democratic Party did not support policies beneficial to blacks.
E. benefited equally with whites in the programs of the New Deal because Franklin Roosevelt refused to sanction discrimination.

20. The Committee for Industrial Organization (CIO) was established?:
A. to organize skilled workers.
B. by industrialists to undermine the power of labor unions.
C. by President Roosevelt as one of his "alphabet agencies" to address economic problems.
D. to organize all workers in a particular industry, regardless of race, gender, or degree of skill.
E. to combat child labor

1. B
2. A
3. C
4. D
5. D
6. A
7. E
8. C
9. D
10. A
11. C
12. A
13. C
14. B
15. B
16. E
17. A
18. D
19. A
20. D