1. Bill of Rights

  • Bill of Rights, first 10 Amendments to the Constitution, is ratified in 1791.
    • Amendment #1- Freedom of religion, speech or press, assembly, andexternal image tronfif.jpg petition.
    • Amendment #2-Right to bear arms
    • Amendment #3-Soldiers can’t be housed in civilian homes during peacetime.
    • Amendment #4- Protection against illegal search and seizure
    • Amendment #5- Protection against self incrimination + double jeopardy
    • Amendment #6- Speedy trial
    • Amendment #7- Trial by jury
    • Amendment #8-Protection against excessive bail and cruel or unusual punishment
    • Amendment #9- Any rights not explicitly stated in the Constitution cannot be infringed upon by the federal government
    • Amendment #10- Any rights not explicitly granted to the federal government are reserved by the people/state

2. George Washingtonexternal image George-wframeless.jpg

A. Inauguration and Early Action

  • Washington was unanimously selected to be the first President of the United States in 1789 by the electoral college.
  • Organized the Executive Branch with the creation of his cabinet
    • Thomas Jefferson- Secratary of State
    • Alexander Hamilton- Secratary of Treasury
    • Henry Knox- Secratary of War
    • Edmund Randolph- Attorney General
  • Judiciary Act of 1789 establishes Supreme Court with 13 district court, John Jay becomes first Supreme Court Justive

B. Jefferson's Financial Plan

  • Proposes Assumption Bill in which government would pay off debt at face value plus interest while also assuming debts of the states
  • High tariffs would protect newly developed industries from foreign competition, encourage manufacturing
  • Hoped to create National Bank
    • Hamilton hoped to model bank after Bank of England to store excess money, print new bills, and circulate cash
    • Jefferson felt that because the power to create a bank was not given in the Constitution, it should nexternal image Jack_Daniels_Whiskey.jpgot be done (Bank should be state controlled according to 9th Amendment)
    • Hamilton evoked "Elastic Caluse" to make case that Bank was permitted as well as necessary.
  • Hamilton's economic plan included
    • -All debts were to be paid at face value.
    • The federal government would assume all of the debts owed by the states.
    • The debt would be financed with new U.S. government bonds paying about 4% interest.
    • The government would not pay back the principal on this debt, but merely pay the interest owed.
    • The annual interest on the debt would be paid by a new tariff and a stiff excise tax on liquor

C. Domestic Issues

  • Whiskey Rebellion occurs in 1797 as a response to Hamilton's excise tax
    • Washington sends 13,000 troops to put down rebellion but nothing happened. This demonstration was a command for respect by the federal government.
  • Public Land Act of 1796 devises procedure for dividing land in the West.

D. Foreign Policy

  • 1778 Franco-American alliance bound the U.S. to aid French against future foes, however, WAshington favored a policy of neutrality, despite Jeffersonian Democrat-Republicans that favored honoring the alliance
  • 1973-Neutrality Proclamation declared the government's official neutrality in war btwn France & Britain and warned U.S> citizens to be impartial to both sides--> increased tensions bwtn pro-french Jeffersonians and pro-british Federalists
  • Citizen Edmond Genet, a representative of the French Republic, heightened tensions when he tried to take advantage of the Franco-American alliance. He foolishly believed the U.S. wouldn't back up the Neutrality Proclamation and began a series of unneutral activity unauthorized by the French alliance, including recruiting armies to invade SPanish FLordida and Louisiana and British Canada
E. Farewell Address
  • Asks not to get involved in European affairs, warned against making permanent alliances in foreign
  • Political Parties
    • Federalists- John Adams, Alexander Hamilton-loose interpretation w/ a strong central government, pro-British, Aid business, national bank, tariffs, mostly Northern businessmen
    • Democratic-Republicans-Thomas Jefferson, James Madison, Strict interpretation with a weak central government. Pro-French, favor agriculture, no national bank, opposed tariffs, skilled workers and small farmers and plantation owners of the South

external image johnadams3.jpg

3. John Adams, (1797-1801)

Election of 1796- Adams (Federalist) vs. Jefferson (Democrat-Republican)- The campaign focused on personalities--> Adams won 71 votes ro 68 in the Electoral College

A. Diplomatic Affairs

The French condemned Jay's Treaty as a violation of the Franco-American alliance of 1778 nd a future alliance w/ Britain
Even though French warships began attacking defenseless U.S. merchant ships, Adams tried to continue the policy of neutrality
  • XYZ Affair- Adams sent 3 envoys, including future chief justice JOhn Marshall, to Paris (1797) in hopes of meeting with French foreign minister, Talleyrand. However they U.S. envoys were approached by 3 french spies (x, y, and z) who demanded a loan of 32 million florins and a bribe of $250,000 to talk to Talleyrand --> this outraged the U.S. which cried "Millions for defense, but not one cent for tribute"
  • As a result war preparations began: creation of the Navy Department, reestablishment of the United STates Marine Corps, and the authorization of a new army
  • As a last attempt for peace the Convention of 1800 was signed in PAris. IT annuled the Franco-AMerican alliance and U.S> agreed to pay damage claims of AMerican shippers

B. Political affairs

  • Alien and Sedition Acts- 1798 The Alien and Sedition Acts were a pair of laws passed to draw attention away from the XYZ affair. All criticism against the government was outlawed, forcing opponents to express their objections anonymously.
  • Naturalization Act- revised the procedures by which an immigrant could become a citizen of the United States. Rather than having to live in the US for five years before becoming eligible to become a citizen, the Naturalization Act increased the residency requirement to fourteen years.
  • "Midnight Judges"-1801 Adams appointed a number of Federalists judges to federal court positions in an effort to ensure the upcoming Republican rule. Adams signed the judges’ commissions during his final few hours in office.
  • Kentucky (Jefferson) and Virginia (Madison) Resolutions- 1798 in response to the Alien and Sedition Acts both Kentucky and Virginia endorsed manifestos on states' rights, written anonymously by Thomas Jefferson and James Madison. These resolutions stated that state legislatures maintained the power to judge the constitutionality of acts of Congress. In 1799, Kentucky passed a resolution that declared that states could nullify objectionable fedral laws.

4. Thomas Jefferson (1801-1809)

external image thomas-jefferson-picture.jpg

A. Personal Profile:

  • Republican (Federalist)
  • Former Secretary of State for Washington and VP for Adams
  • Vice President was Aaron Burr
  • Secretary of State was James Madison
  • Considered father of modern day spoil system
  • Simple and frugal, and did not seat in regard to rank during his dinners.
  • Unconventional and sloppily dressed.
  • Started the precedent of sending messages to congress to be read by a clerk.
  • Increase of federal power during his term

B. Domestic Affairs:

  • Marbury vs. Madison- 1803, overturned the Judiciary Act of 1789. The decision established the principal of judicial review, greatly expanding the role of the judiciary within the federal government.
  • Louisiana Purchase-1803, sale of the Louisiana Territory from France to the United States for 15 million. It raised several issues of ] interpretation, but it was ultimately approved by Congress, and increased America’s size by 100 percent.
external image LouisianaPurchase.jpgexternal image lpurch1.jpg
  • Lewis and Clark Expedition-1804-1806, expedition sent by Jefferson to explore the land called the , acquired in the 1803 Louisiana Purchase from France, and to search for the Northwest Passage, an water route that would connect the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans. They did not find the passage, since it doesn’t exist, but they learned a great deal about America’s natives and geography.
  • 12th amendment- ensured that the president and vice president would
    not be political opponents

C. Foreign Policy:

  • In his inaugural address he expressed that the Untied States should have an honest friendship with all nations and entangling alliances with none.
  • During the war between France and Great Britain, the United States was indirectly involved through the stringent laws of France and Britian including the Orders of Council from Britian that did not allow American ships in French ports and the order of Napoleon that any ship in a British port would be siezed the the soildiers impressed
  • Embargo Act-1807, forbade all import/export trade between the United States and foreign nations. Failed because Jefferson did not continue with the embargo long enough to make GB listen to the United State (edit: was repealed in Jefferson's term 3 days before his retirement) and was repealed during Madison’s term.
D. Re-Election in 1804
  • In 1804, Jefferson won with a margin of 162 Electoral votes to 14 for his opponent

4. James Madison

  • Elected 1808
  • Supported by Jefferson and he Anti-Federalists
  • Defeated Charles Pickney ==
    external image madison.jpg

A. War

  • Nonintercourse Act of 1809-America can trade with all but France and GB
  • Macon’s Bill No. 2 (1810)-If either France or Britain would pledge to respect the neutrality of the US than the US would prohibit trade with the foe •
  • Napoleon’s Deception-Napoleon agreed to respect rights of American ships, US placed embargo on British trade, Napoleon continued practices of seizing American ships
  • War finally declared in 1812- House: For- 79 Against- 49 Senate: For- 19 Against- 13external image war_prez_prima_1.jpg

  • Freedom of the Seas
  • Confict with Britain on the Western Frontier
  • Pressure from War Hawks such as Henry Clay and John C Calhoun

2. Fighting
  • Naval Battles- Mostly even, both sides with some decisive victories (USS Constitution)
  • Three part invasion of Canada
  • Following British defeat of Napoleon, efforts were focused on the US and a massive military campaign. White House is burned and siege at Baltimore leads to "Star Spangled Banner" to be written
  • William Henry Harrison with decisive victory over Native Americans at Battle of Tippecanoe
  • Andrew Jackson wins at Battle of New Orleans in 1816, ven though war ended in 1815==war.jpg=====war2.png===

3.Treaty of Ghent
  • external image banner_ghent.jpgDec 24, 1814

  • A halt of fighting, return of all conquered territory to the prewar claimant, recognition of the prewar boundary between Canada and US
  • Legacy (Courtesy of Mr. Pitman's Powerpoint)
    • US gained respect for surviving two wars with GB
    • US came to accept Canada as neighbor and part of British empire
    • Widely denounced for its talk of secession and disunion in new England, the Federalist party came to an end (Hartford Convention-NE delegates met to discuss secession and amendment of Constitution (led by radical Federalists)
    • Talk of nullification and secession in NE set precedent for South
    • Native Americans forced to surrender large land settlements
    • More US factories built to combat British blockade, move toward industrial self-sufficiency
    • Andrew Jackson and William Henry Harrison gained popularity
    • Growth of American Nationalism, and belief that future for the US lay in the West and away from Europe

Review Questions

Hamilton proposed a tariff soon after the launching of the United States government in order to?:


stop the export of raw materials to Great Britain.


help develop manufacturing in the United States.


help develop the American labor movement.


punish Great Britain for postwar harassment of American shipping.


support the creation of an American merchant marine.

The Judiciary Act of 1789?:

established a system of lower federal courts.

provided for the election of federal judges.

provided for the establishment of state courts

provided for the impeachment of federal officials.

was violated by William Marbury.
Washington's Farewell Address in 1796?:

warmly endorsed the appearance of two contending political parties in America.

warned against the dangers of permanent foreign alliances.

was delivered to a joint session of Congress by Washington himself.

proposed a two-term limitation on the presidency.

4The international incident known as the XYZ Affair involved?:

a French foreign minister's demand for a bribe before he would meet with American envoys.

the British refused to evacuate their forts on American territory.

General Andrew Jackson's incursion into Spanish-held Florida.

the British seizure of American crewmen from a U. S. Navy warship in Chesapeake Bay.

Aaron Burr's secret plot to detach the western United States in order to create a new nation of which he would be ruler.
Purposes of Alexander Hamilton's tax, tariff, and debt manipulation schemes during the presidency of George Washington included?:

ridding the federal government of debt as soon as possible.

ending undue government interference in the economy.

binding the interests of the moneyed class to the new federal government.

maintaining the United States as an agrarian society.

promoting the importation of British manufactured goods.
In Marbury v. Madison, Chief Justice John Marshall argued successfully that the Supreme Court could?:

declare federal laws unconstitutional.

remove federal officials who would not or could not perform their duties.

determine cases involving interstate commerce.

decide whether debts should be considered in contracts.

uphold the authority of the federal government over the states.
Which of the following does NOT describe the Louisiana Purchase of 1803?:

the United States purchased Louisiana from France for $15,000,000.

French power expanded in the Western Hemisphere.

Jefferson expanded the powers of the presidency.

the United States doubled in size.

the treaty of cession left some of the boundaries vague.

8 The causes of the War of 1812 included all of the following EXCEPT?:

demand for respect of America's neutral rights.

land hunger in the West as well as a desire for Florida.

fear that Indian attacks were caused by the British.

strong sectional rivalries that could only be overcome by an external enemy.

1. The "Revolution of 1800" involved a radical transfer of power from the Federalist merchant class to farmers and urban artisans and craftsmen.

True False

2. An unexpected deadlock with Aaron Burr meant that Jefferson had to be elected by the House of Representatives.

True False

3. Jefferson and his Treasury Secretary, Albert Gallatin, kept in place most of the Federalist financial policies.

True False

4. The Jeffersonian Republicans showed their hostility to the Federalist Supreme Court by trying to impeach Chief Justice John Marshall.

True False

5. The case of Marbury v. Madison established the principle that the president could appoint but not remove Supreme Court justices.

True False


1. A key addition to the new federal government that had been demanded by many of the ratifying states was

A. a. a cabinet to aid the president.
B. b. a written bill of rights to guarantee liberty.
C. c. a supreme court.
D. d. federal assumption of state debts.

2. The Bill of Rights is the name given to provisions that exist as

A. a. an executive proclamation of President George Washington.
B. b. a written agreement between the federal government and the states.
C. c. a set of rulings issued by the Supreme Court.
D. d. the first ten amendments to the federal Constitution.

3. Which of the following sets of rights are not included in the Bill of Rights?

A. a. freedom of religion, speech, and the press
B. b. rights to education and travel
C. c. rights to bear arms and to be tried by a jury
D. d. rights to assemble and petition the government for redress of grievances

4. The Ninth and Tenth Amendments partly reversed the federalist momentum of the Constitution by declaring that

A. a. the federal government had no power to restrict the action of local governments.
B. b. the powers of the presidency did not extend to foreign policy.
C. c. all rights not mentioned in the federal Constitution were retained by the states or by the people themselves.
D. d. the Supreme Court had no power to rule in cases affecting property rights.

5. Hamilton's first financial policies were intended

A. a. to finance the new government through the sale of western lands.
B. b. to fund the national debt and to have the federal government assume the debts owed by the states.
C. c. to repudiate the debts accumulated by the government of the Articles of Confederation.
D. d. to create a sound federal currency backed by gold.

6. The essential disagreement between Hamilton and Jefferson over the proposed Bank of the United States was

A. a. whether or not the Constitution could be constructed to permit the federal government to establish such a bank.
B. b. whether or not it would be economically wise to create a single national currency.
C. c. whether the bank should be under the control of the federal government or the states.
D. d. whether or not such a bank would plunge the federal government into excessive debt.

7. The first American political parties developed out of

A. a. the disagreement of Jefferson and his states' rights followers with Hamilton's economic policies.
B. b. the belief of the Founding Fathers that organized political opposition was a necessary part of good government.
C. c. the continuing hostility of the antifederalists to the legitimacy of the new federal Constitution.
D. d. patriotic opposition to foreign intervention in American domestic affairs.

8. The Whiskey Rebellion was most significant because

A. a. it showed that American citizens would rise up against unfair taxation.
B. b. it showed that the new federal government would use force if necessary to uphold its authority.
C. c. it demonstrated the efficiency of the American military.
D. d. it showed the strength of continuing antifederalist hostility to the new constitutional government.

9. Regarding the French Revolution, most Jeffersonian Democratic-Republicans believed that

A. a. the violence was regrettable but necessary.
B. b. the overthrow of the king was necessary, but the Reign of Terror went much too far.
C. c. the Revolution should be supported by American military aid.
D. d. the Revolution represented a complete distortion of American ideals of liberty.

10. Washington's foreign policy rested on the basic belief that

A. a. it was in America's interest to aid the British against Revolutionary France.
B. b. it was in America's interest to stay neutral in European wars.
C. c. America was morally obligated to adhere to the alliance with France.
D. d. America ought to enter the French-British war only if republican ideals were at stake.

1. B
2. D
3. B
4. C
5. B
6. A
7. A
8. B
9. A