Andrew Johnson (President 1865-1869 following Lincoln's assasination)
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Personal Background

- Andrew Johnson came from very poor and humble conditions, he was apprenticed as a tailor and was raised in Tennessee.
- Johnson never attended school and was illiterate until he was married
- Was chosen as Lincolns running mate for the Union party because of his favoring to the war democrats and other pro-southern elements
- Johnson had held a steadfast duty to the people and was a dogmatic champion of states rights and the Constitution
- He was intelligent,forceful, and gifted with homespun honesty yet at the same time he did not understand the North and was distrusted by the South. He was a Democrat who was not accepted by Republicans and was not elected to office. Johnson was hotheaded and stubborn and history makes him seem to be overall the wrong man for the unprecedented responsibility of Reconstruction.
- He was greatly inspired by Jacksonian democracy, and thus founded the Democratic party in his region where he was elected to the town council in 1829, then as mayor in 1831.
- He was a strict constructionist and an advocate of states’ rights who distrusted the power of government at all levels.
- He rose in Tennessee politics by championing the interest of poor whites in their economic conflict with rich planters.
- After Tennessee was occupied by Union troops, he was appointed that state's war governor.
- Johnson was a southern Democrat, but Republicans picked him to be Lincoln's running mate in 1864. This was purposely done to encourage pro-Union Democrats to vote for the Union (Republican) party.
- As a white supremacist, the new president was bound to clash with Republicans in Congress who believed that the war was fought not just to preserve the Union but also to liberate black Americans from slavery.

Presidential Reconstruction Under Johnson
- When Johnson took to the role of of Reconstruction he followed very closely to Lincoln's Ten Percent Plan. This plan goes along with the philosophy that the South never really left the Union and restoration would be relatively simple. All Lincoln's plan required was 10% of the voting population in each state to take a loyalty oath to the Union and accept the emancipation of the slaves.
- The Republican party over this time became noticeably split between the radical and moderate republicans. Radicals wanted harsh punishment for Southerners and moderates wanted fast integration of the United Staes. An example of the rift is the Radical Republican plan for reconstruction, the Wade-Davis Bill, which required 50% of voters to take the oath and a stronger safeguarding force in the South. This plan was pocket vetoed by Lincoln.
- From the start Johnson was alienated by the Radical Republicans because he did not fall in line with their plans for Reconstruction. This tension would continure to escalate during his administration.
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- On the Left, Thaddeus Stevens the leading radical in the House, and on the right the recovered Charles Sumner the leading radical in the Senate.

The Black Codes
- These "codes" were laws passed by the new Southern "regimes" with aims at keeping the Black population in submission. Some of the things these law sought to control were:
1. Wages were kept generally very low for Black's and those who would "jump" on their binding contracts would be subject to dire penalties.
2. The codes forbade blacks from serving on a jury, from renting or leasing land, and penalties were set for "idleness" which could be indicative of being in a chain gang.
3. These laws basically struck down the rights won in the civil war and generally forced just freed blacks back onto the same farms under sharecropping contracts, just a step above slavery.
- These laws provided both doubt in moderates for the result of the war and stronger will in the Radicals to help the black Americans and punish the Southern successors.

Important Vetoes Under Johnson
- Johnson alienated even moderate Republicans
- In early 1866, he vetoed two important bills
1. a bill increasing the services and protection offered by the Freedmen's Bureau
2. a civil rights bill that nullified the Black Codes and guaranteed full citizenship and equal rights to black Americans

United States House Election of 1866
- Johnson could not fully cooperate with Congress, and thus to the road in the fall of 1866 in his infamous "swing around the circle" to attack his congressional opponents.
- He argued that equal rights for black Americans would result in an "Africanized" society, which appealed to the racial prejudices of white Americans
- Republicans counterattacked this by accusing Johnson of being a drunkard and a traitor. They appealed to anti-southern prejudices by employing a campaign tactic known as "waving the bloody shirt"- inflaming the hatreds of northern voters by reminding them of the hardships of the war.
- In the final results of the election, the Republicans held an overwhelming victory.
- After 1866, Johnson's enemies, both moderate and radical Republicans, would have commanding control of Congress with more than a 2/3 majority in both the House and the Senate.

Congressional Reconstruction
- In December 1865, many Southern states were ready to be integrated into the Union and back into Congress. This would usher in ex-confederates and Democrats, which marked the end of the Republican monopoly over domestic policies.
- Republicans has used this lucrative political advantage to pass the undefied legislations such as the Morill Tariff, the Pacific Railroad Act, and the Homestead Act.
- Not only would these Democrats return to Congress they now had the support of a full black vote opposed to the 3/5 voting representation. This sparked Republican fear of the uniting of the Democrats and their control over Congress and the implementing of black codes across the country.
- On December 6, 1865, after rigorous work of Johnson in getting the wheels moving in the election of Southern officials and integration of the Southern States into the Union, Johnson declared that the Union was now restored.

Johnson Vs. Congress
- Johnson's strong favor toward the speedy integration of the South into the Union sparked large discontent amongst the Radical Republicans. They stayed determined that the goals of the Civil War would not be tarnished and that the South would pay.
- Johnson exploded the powder keg between him and Congress when he vetoed the Civil Rights Bill and a bill to extend the life of the Freedman's Bureau. This however did not deter Congress from continuously overiding his frequent vetoe's.
-Freedman's Bureau- A primitive welfare agency set up to teach reading and writing to freed blacks, which was largely successful in some places and meager in others. It finally fell in 1872 after long dislike by rascist whites.
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- The Cartoon Depicts common feelings of the time that Johnson was out of touch with how the Constitution should be interprested to the situation. Many felt that he was not able enough to control the tense situation unfolding around reconstruction.

The 13th Amendment
-officially abolished, and continues to prohibit, slavery, and, with limited exceptions such as those convicted of a crime, prohibits involuntary servitude.
-The Amendment in practice emancipated only the slaves of Delaware and Kentucky, as everywhere else the slaves had been freed by state action and the federal government's Emancipation Proclamation
-outlaws and prevents peonage, involuntary servitude, and forced labor
-After debating the amendment, the Senate passed it on April 8, 1864, by a vote of 38 to 6. Although they initially rejected the amendment, the House of Representatives passed it on January 31, 1865, by a vote of 119 to 56. President Abraham Lincoln signed a Joint Resolution, February 1, 1865, and submitted the proposed amendment to the states for ratification

The 14th Amendment
- The amendment was an overall rewriting of the ideals of the Civil Rights Bill, which included:
1. All Blacks are American citizens
2. If a state denied citizenship to Black's then then its representatives in the electoral college would be lowered.
3. Former Confederates could not hold Federal or State office.
4. The Federal debt was guaranteed while the Confederate one was repudiated.
- In 1886, Republicans would not allow Reconstruction to continue any further without the 14th amendment. As election time rolled around Johnson wanted to lower the Republican grip on the Congress and began a series of retaliatory "Round the Circle" speechs. external image prh_01_img0037.jpg Johnson was ordinarily met by heckled audiences and often gave "give em hell" speechs and generally denounced the Radical Republicans. Ironically his plan backfired and it resulted in more Republicans being elected into Congress.
- Republicans had now gained a veto-proof Congress and essentially control over Reconstruction yet they still could not agree.

Radical Reconstruction Under Johnson
- Reconstruction took a whole new path under the implementation of the Reconstruction Act. This act divided the South into five military zones, temporarily disfranchised thousands of confederates, and laid down new guidelines for readmission including: 1. All states had to approve the 14th Amendment
2. All states had to guarantee full suffrage of all male former slaves.
- The 15th amendment, passed in 1869, gave blacks their right to vote.
- By 1870, all of the states had complied with the standards of Reconstruction

Women Still Not Getting Any Respect
- As the 13th, 14th, and 15th amendments were passed women had to watch as African Americans were being given rights as women were still passed over.
- Elizabeth Cady Stanton and Susan B. Anthony campaigned against the 14th and 15th amendments which included the word male, these being the first to do so in the Constitution.
- Women had to simply accept the fact that it wasnt their time for equality.

The Reality of the Controversial South and the Klu Klux Klan
- The Union League- A network of political clubs that educated Black members about civil duties and campaigned for Republican candidates. It later built Black churches and schools and represented Black grievances.
- Blacks gained a new and strong political force in the election of officials in the South. Black officials began arising in both state and local governments. Hiram Revels and Blanche K. Bruce each even rise to serve in Congress.
- This, along with individuals like "scalawags" who plundered Southern treasuries and essentially sold out the South and "carpetbaggers" who are Northerners accused of sleazily seeking power and profit in the ravished south, leads to anger among Southern Whites.
external image asset_upload_file52_12125.jpg - These groups of Southern Whites resenting the strides made by African Americans toward's equality formed the "Invisible Empire of the South" or the Klu Klux Klan in Tennessee, 1866.
- This organization strived at scaring Blacks into not voting or seeking jobs through means of terror and often violence.
- This group was the opposition to what abolitionists sought to do. The Force Acts of 1870 and 1871 sought at disbanding this group but their influence and damage had already been done and its enlistment is still alive today.

The Impeachment of Johnson
- Radicals grew tired of Johnson's stern opposition to Congress's goals and tried to execute a plot to get rid of him.
- In 1867, Congress passed the Tenure of Office Act, which provided that the President had to secure approval of the Senate before removing an appointee once they had been approved by the Senate. When Johnson decided to dismiss Edwin M. Stanton, a Republican spy, in 1868 the Republicans impeached him.
- Johnson was not allowed to testify by his lawyers, who argued that the Tenure of Office Act was unconstitutional and Johnson was acting under the Constitution not the law.
- On May 16, 1868, Johnson was acquitted of all charges by a single vote. Interestingly some Republican sacrificed their politcal career and did the right thing in voting "not guilty" for Johnson external image 000000d9.jpg
- Radicals were infuriated by the decision but others feared the precedent of impeaching the President.

Chow Construction Fact : Did you know that when the Civil War began, Johnson was the only Senator from a Confederate state who did not leave Congress to return to the South.

Chow Construction Fact : Johnson had two memorable inaugurations. He was drunk at his inauguration for the Vice Presidency. At his inauguration for the Presidency, Johnson

Coolest Chow Construction Fact : Not only did Johnson make his own clothes, but he also made clothes for all of his cabinet members!

The Purchase of Alaska
- In 1867, Secretary of State William H. Seward bought Alaska from Russia for $7.2 Million.
- Considered Sewards Folly, it wasnt until oil and gold were discovered that it was proven what a great bargain it was.

Ulysses S. Grant(1822-1885), REPUBLICAN, served from 1868-1876
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After the mess Johnson had endured with Congress, the country was welcome to start over. Republicans nominated the Civil War Hero Ulysses S. Grant in the election of 1868, on the platform of continuing Reconstruction and peace.
-Horatio Seymour, a weak candidate, ran once more for the Democrats. Grant won a landslide victory.

Corruption Abounds
-Jim Fisk and Jay Gould plan in 1869 to drastically raise the price of gold. They buy mass sums on "Black Friday," September 24, 1869. This hurts the United States economy as well as the Treasury.
-"Boss" Tweed (Tweed Ring) cons New York out $200 million, and his group of crooks hurt the cities reputation.
-The Credit Mobilier of 1872 when railroad insiders created this false business to hire themselves at inflated prices, which reaped them large dividends.
-This unfortunate incident led to the indictment of many government officials who were bribed to keep silent about this event, many of which were higher up along the government chain. This severely hurt the government's reputation, as well as Grant's.

The Split in the Republican Party and The Election of 1872
- By 1872 a wave of digust was sweeping the Republican party in regards to the scandal surrounding Grants administration. Reformers organized the Liberal Republican Party and nominated the brilliant yet erratic former external image greeley.jpgeditor of the New York Tribune, Horace Greeley.
- The Democrats foolishly "swallowed" and endorsed Greeley despite his history of blasting the Democrats. Greeley did this by promising a grasping of hands between North and South and an end to Reconstruction.
- The campaigns of each was geared towards mudslinging with Greeley being called an atheist, a communist, a vegetarian, and a signer of Jefferson Davis's bail bond and Grant being called an ignoramos, a drunkard, and a swindler.
- In the end the voters decided they would "Grant" Ulysses another term and it showed in a sweeping 286 to 66 electoral count.
- However the Liberal Republicans agitation frightened the moderate Republicans into cleaning Grants administrationg with a general amnesty act, removing politcal disabilities from all but some five hundred former confederate leaders, to reduce the high Civil War tariffs, and to fumigate Grant's administration with a mild civil-service reform.

Depression and the Demand For More Money
- In 1873, a threatening panic broke out, caused by too many railroads and factories being formed than existing markets could bear and the over-loaning of banks to those projects
- During this time the Greenbacks that were being issued during the Civil War were being recalled. During the panic "cheap money" supporters wanted it back.
external image 1804-Dollar-Smaller.jpg- However Grant, persuaded by supporters of hard money, passed the Resumption Act of 1875 which pledged the government to further withdraw greenbacks and made all further redemption of paper money in gold value, starting in 1879.
- Debtors cried for another form of inflating the economy in the form of increasing the use of silver as a standard. Grant refused to coin more silver dollars, which had been stopped in 1873, as a result of new silver discoveries in the west lowering its value.
- Grant continued his legacy of maintaining an unsound government and as greenbacks regained their value few exchanged their bills for gold on redemption day in 1879.
- The strict Republican hard money policy, eventually led to the takeover of the House by Democrats in 1874 and spawned the Greenback Labor Party which would get fourteen member to Congress elected.
- This only signified the beginning of the battle over monetary policies.
Fun FACT: Grant said he only knew two songs "One was Yankee Doodle and the other wasn't"