This section should include information from and including George H. Bush to and including George W. Bush.
George H. Bush
I. Background Information

A. George Herbert Bush was the 41st President, serving from 1989 to 1993.
B. Bush served as Vice President during the administration of Ronald Reagan.
II. Foreign Policy
A. Operation Just Cause was the U.S. military invasion of Panama that deposed General Manuel Noriega in December 1989. General Manuel Noriega was at one time a U.S. ally, who was increasingly using Panama to facilitate the drug traffic from South America to the United States. The military implementation took place under supervision of Joint Chiefs of Staff Chairman General Colin Powell. The invasion was preceded by massive protests in Panama against Noriega. Bush's Secretary of Defense Dick Cheney visited American troops in Panama right after the invasion.
B. The Gulf War took place from 1990-1991. Iraq, led by Saddam Hussein, invaded its oil-rich neighbor to the south, Kuwait. The broad coalition, in an operation known as Desert Shield, sought to remove Iraqi forces from Kuwait and ensure that Iraq did not invade Saudi Arabia. Fighting began on January 17, 1991, when U.S.-led air units launched a devastating series of air attacks against Iraq, with this operation referred to as Desert Storm. Bush achieved his stated objectives of liberating Kuwait and forcing Iraqi withdrawal, and allowed Saddam Hussein to stay in power.
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C. As the Soviet Union came to a demise, President Bush and Soviet President Mikhail Gorbachev declared a U.S.-Soviet strategic partnership at the summit of July 1991, decisively marking the end of the Cold War.
D. The North American Free Trade Area is the trade bloc in North America created by the North American Free Trade Agreement(NAFTA). NAFTA called for immediately eliminating duties on the majority of tariffs between products traded among the United States, Canada and Mexico, and gradually phasing out other tariffs, over a period of about 14 years. The treaty also protected intellectual property rights and outlined the removal of investment restrictions among the three countries.
III. Domestic Affairs
A. Bush's pardon of six former government employees implicated in the Iran-Contra scandal - most prominently former Secretary of Defense Caspar Weinberger. Weinberger had been scheduled to stand trial for allegedly lying to Congress regarding his knowledge of arms sales to Iran and concealing 1700 pages of his personal diary detailing discussions with other officials about the arms sales.
B. Bush appointed wo Justices to the Supreme Court: David Souter and Clarence Thomasas.
C. As the economy soured and the federal deficit soared, Bush was forced to renege on his "no new taxes" pledge of 1988. This action resulted in his losing support of hard-core conservatives and paved the way for a challenge from within his party during the 1992 election.
VI. The 1992 Re-election
A. The tail end of the late 1980s recession was a contributing factor to his defeat in the 1992 Presidential electionto Governor Bill Clinton of Arkansas. The coalition victory in the Persian Gulf War led to a feeling that Bush's re-election was almost assured, but the economic recession coupled with a perceived failure to end the war properly reduced his popularity. Bush was also perceived as being "out of touch" with the American worker.

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REVIEW QUESTIONS:
1. Which trend has reflected the increasing pluralism in United States society in recent years?



1.
a decrease in immigration from Latin America

2.
growing demands for unskilled labor

3.
new efforts by public schools to teach about ethnic heritages

4.
failure of Congress to approve appointments of women and minority groups to Federal courts
2. Which statement best summarizes economic conditions in the United States since the end of World War II?



1.
The economy has been in a depression for most of the period.

2.
The United States has had the world’s highest unemployment rate.

3.
The United States has come to depend more heavily on imports to meet its economic needs.

4.
The legal minimum wage has steadily declined.
3. In the United States, most new jobs created during the 1980’s were jobs that



1.
were classified as managerial

2.
provided services rather than produced goods

3.
depended on heavy manufacturing

4.
were farm related
4. Which is the most valid conclusion that may be drawn from the study of population patterns in the United States today?



1.
Most of the population is concentrated in and around large urban centers.

2.
The number of ethnic groups has declined.

3.
The population of the South has continued to decline.

4.
The Northeast is the fastest growing region in the nation.

ANWSER KEY:
1) 3, 2) 3, 3) 2, 4) 1


President Bill Clinton

I. Domestic Affairs
A. North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA)
1. Reduced or eliminated tariffs between the United States, Canada, and Mexico
B. Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Act

1. Reform of Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC)

II. Foreign Affairs
A. George H. Bush sent American troops into Somalia
1. Country in East Africa
2. Humanitartian mission turned bloody in 1993
3. Clinton ordered a full withdrawl in 1994
B. Rowanda
  1. Killing broke out in Rowanda in April 1994
  2. 800,000 Tutsis murdered in a genocide sponsored by the Rowandan Government
  3. No American troops sent
  4. In 1998 Clinton went on a 6 nation tour of Africa to speak to the Civil War survivors of Rowanda
C. Doctrine of Enlargement and Success Policy
D. Russia
1. Persuaded to withdraw from the Baltic Republics of Estonia and Latvia
E. Europe
1. Clinton moved NATO to bomb Serbia
2. Bombing strikes forced Serbian troops to withdraw
3. No American Casualties
4. Americans joined the British, French and other NATO troops to occupy Kosovo
F. Soviet Union
1. Added Poland, Hungary, and the Czech Republic into NATO
a. Russia only agreed after Clinton assured no nuclear arms would be placed in Eastern Europe
2. Nunn-Lugar Act
a. The US gave former Soviet States money and technological assistance to better their nuclear power plants and dismantle nuclear weapons


George W. Bush

Controversial Election of 2000
A)Candidates
1- Republicans chose Texas governor George W. Bush, son of former president George H. Bush -he wanted to cut taxes and give the surplus back to the people
2- Democrats chose Vice President Albert Gore- called for smaller tax cuts and eliminate national debt and expand social security
3- Ralph Nader ran for the Green Party

B) Dispute in Florida
1- After the votes were so close in Florida, the law called for a recount in teh ballots. The recount said that Bush would win by a still very tiny amount so Democrats called for another recount while Republicans did not want another one
2- Democrats challenged the legality of the process while Republicans fought to keep pro
3- A hand count of 60,000 overlooked ballots by the machine was ordered by the Florida Supreme Court
4- The case of the election was eventually taken to the Supreme Court where 5 conservative justices out of the 9 ruled in favor of Bush
The Ruling: neither Florida's legislature nor its courts had set a standard for evaluating ballots in disupute, so the hand counted ballots breached teh 14th Amendment's equal protection clause
5- This ruling gave Bush the presidencywhen there was only a margin of 537 out of the 6 million in Florida as he gained 271 electoral votes to Gore's 266
6- The senate was also split fifty-fifty between Republicans and Democrats


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Bush's Presidency
A) Bush's Background
1- He became the 43rd president
2- Raised in Texas for most of his life but held a New England priviledged life
3- He held degrees from Yale and Harvard
4- Was the Republican governor of Texas
5- Vice President: Dick Cheney

B) Bush as a Divider Under "Compassionate Conservatism"
1-He ended support of international health programs that supported abortion, upsetting liberals
2- He limited government-sponsored research in the area of stem cells
3- He advocated for federally financed faith-based social welfare programs
4- He went agaisnt environmentalists when he challenged finding on water contamination and global warming, ending the Kyoto Treay which limited greenhouse gas emissions into the air
5- He also allowed for oil exploration in the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge in Alaska
6- Many, including conservatives were worried by his $1.3 trillion tax cut
7- His presidency was significant for its sharp division between Democrats and Republicans who were divided on his policies

Terroism In America

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A) September 11, 2001
1-Two hijackekd planes crashed into the twin towers in NYC's World Trade Center, another into the Pentagon in Washington, D.C. and one forced down by brave passengers into a rural area in Pennsylvania
2- With the collapse of the TwinTowers, 3000 victims were killed alond with hundreds of NYC firefighters and police officers
3- Osama bin Laden, head of terrorist network known as Al Qaeda who refuged in Afghanistan under the Taliban government, was identified as the person behind the attack
4- Caused by his resentment of the emabrgo on Sadam Hussein's Iraq, the US's presence in the Middle East, its support of Israel agaisnt Palestine and its overall economic and military power

B) Bush's Actions and the Aftermath of the Attacks
1- Ordered military campaign agaisnt Afghanistan in which the Taliban was overthrown but Bin Laden was not found
2- Americans were extremely fearful of another unexpected attack
3- Contaminated letters with Anthrax killed many Americans also starting a fear
4- Congress passed the Patriot Act in October 2001 which expanded the rights of the government and permitted phone call and e-mail surveillance and deportation of immigrants suspected as terrorists
5-New cabinet-level Department of Homeland Security created






War in Iraq
A) Reasons for War
1- Iraq's continued defiance of UN weapon's inspectors, and some evidence supported that this enemy may have been making weapons of mass destruction
2- Saddam Hussein had long been an enemy of the US and posed a threat to American security, also accused of and eventually convicted oppressing his people and supporting terrorist groups like Al Qaeda
3- Hoped to set up a democracy and improve governments of the Islamic nations
4- Many doubted the US's reasons for waging a war agaisnt Iraq
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B) Actions of War and Rebuilding Iraq
1-October 2002: Congress passed resolution allowing US armed forces to defend agsint the threats posed by Iraq
2- UN gave Iraq a last chance to comply with the weapons inspectors, but Iraq still blcoked them and the UN would not use force to get them to comply
3- President Bush could wait no longer and launched an attack on Baghdad on March 19, 2003, which fell in less than a month and left Hussein out of power and into hiding where he was found 9 months later
4- Constant violence erupted as Iraqi insrugents and Islamic militants attacked American troops trying to establish a new government there
5- Even more soldiers and thousands of iraqi civilians were killed during the US occupation
6- Tensions heightened by reports of abuse to Iraqi prisoners in 2004
7- Meanwhile, Bush was committed to rebuilding Iraq and on June 28, 2004 power was given to the Iraqi government

C) Controversy of the War
1-Many Americans were agaisnt Bush's actions of war believing his actions were not justified as over 100,000 troops were still there
2-Antiwar beliefs: 1-no weapons of mass destruction were ever found 2-Hussein's nuclear program waas not advanced enough to show future threats 3-links between Hussein and Al Qaeda werent proven 4-US would now face long-term burdens

D) A Divided Country
1- Democrats still held resentment over the 2000 election
2- Libertarians upset by the restictions on rights enacted by the Patriot Act
3- Pacifists and Antiwar skptics were agaisnt Bush's reasons for going to war in Iraq
4- Fraud was suspected, helping the rich with big businesses such as Enron (formerly owned by Dick Cheney) and WorldCom
5- Social disputes over gay rights and abortion divided Americans
6- Affirmative action also became an issue as many argued it was a violation of equality under the Constitution
Court Cases: Gratz v. Bollinger : declared unconstitutional numerical formula for admitting minority undergrad students into the University of Michigan
Grutter v. Bollinger : allowed individually based minority admissions for Michigan law school

Reelecting Bush

A) Candidates
1-Republicans chose Bush for reelection
2- Democrats chose Massachusetts Senator John F. Kerryimage005.jpg

B) The Elction of 2004
1- A main issue of the election was focused on homeland security
2- Bush used a strategy of his tax cuts, fight agaisnt terrorism and his moral values to win the victory
3- Democrats had hoped the fighting in Iraq and job losses would lead them to success
4- Bush won the electoral college with 286 to Kerry's 252 along with the popular vote


Social Security Reform during Bush's Presidency

1- As Americans begin to live longer and longer, new issues arised2- Large expenditures on senior citizens whose share of the GNP on healthcare doubled in the last 30 years
3- Restraints developed on the social security system as more and more elderly do not work past 65 and depend on Social Security checks and the ratio of active workers to retirees dropped low
4- With baby boomers coming towards retirement, changes would have to be made to support them
5- As a result, benefits were cut to make workers work longer, they invested cyrrent social security surplus into bonds for futire obligations and privatizes a portion of Social Security so young workers can invest in their own accounts