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- In the Presidential Election of 1816 Democratic Republican James Monroe defeated Federalist Presidential candidate, Rufus King from NY.
- The lack of party rivalry caused a Boston newspaper to dub the time the “Era of Good Feelings.” Monroe continued to support Madison’s programs.
- Federalist Supreme Court led by Marshall:
  • Fletcher v. Peck (1810) – Protected the right of individuals to make contracts
  • McCulloch v. Maryland (1819) – National law was ruled more important than state law map.gif
  • Dartmouth College v. Woodward (1819) – Stopped government from interfering in private contracts
  • Cohens Vs. Virgina (1821) - The right of the courts to review decisions of state supreme courts in all questions involving powers of the federal government.
  • Gibbons v. Ogden (1824) – Congress control of interstate commerce

*Slavery and the Missouri Compromise*
- Henry Clay proposed the Missouri Compromise– Maine would enter as a free state [it was taken out of Massachusetts] and Missouri would enter as a slave state, but in the rest of the Louisiana Territory northof 36’30° slavery was prohibited.
- Basically for every slave state a free state would be admitted to make a balance

*Foreign Policy During the Monroe Administration*
- John Quincy Adams, who served as Secretary of State (1817 – 1825) was an expansionist who pushed to obtain fishing rights for the US in the Atlantic, political separation from Europe, and peace.
Rush-Bagot Treaty (1817) – agreement between the US and GB to limit their naval forces in the Great Lakes.
Convention of 1818 the US-Canada border was fixed at the 49th parallel.
Adams-Onis Treaty (1819) – agreement between US and Spain that completed the US acquisition of Florida
- In 1823 Monroe Doctrine called for: no more European colonization of the Western Hemisphere or European intervention in independent American nations.

*Economic Growth after the War of 1812*
- After the War of 1812 Americans became increasingly involved in the market economy, and jobs became more specialized as transportation improved.
- boom-and-bust cycles: there was great prosperity from 1823 – 1835 and from 1839 – 1843, but in between there were periods of deflation [dec. in prices] whexternal image panic_in_the_streets_title_small.jpgere banks collapsed and many businesses failed.
-Panic of 1819 – 1st bust in the cycles avid speculation on Western lands had led to a precarious situation, and when manufacturing fell in 1818, prices fell drastically. This devastated workers.
- Corporation were groups allowed to hold property and do business as if they were individuals, were allowed to sell shares where the shareholders were granted limited liability which encouraged people to support new businesses, and the number of corporations grew.
- As a result of gov’t efforts the US economy grew [unevenly] from 1812 to around 1850. As the economy grew, though, the dependence of the corporations on the states for investments declined.

external image a_happy-face.gif*Improvements in Transportation*external image 1091299871.jpg
- Following the War of 1812 the states invested in roads, canals and railroads.
- Northern cities became economic centers and the south remained rural increasing stratification
  • National Road– this highway began in Maryland and reached Ohio in 1833.
  • Erie Canal – completed in 1825, the canal linked the Great Lakes with NYC and set off a wave of canal building across the country.
  • Railroads – as investment in canals fell in the 1830s, railroad construction boomed [but it was not until the 1850s that long-distance service was offered at good rates].

Farm Equipment
  • Reaper - 1831 Cyrus McCormick
  • Steel Plow - 1837 John Deere
  • Steam locomotives - 1840 Matthew Baldwin

*The Second Great Awakening*
- In 1790-1840’s radical changes in American Society and reform called Second Great Awakening
- Especially in the “Bible belt.”
- Preacher Charles Finney traveled the country and encouraged people to convert

*The Pursuit of Perfection: Nineteenth Century Reform Movements*
- Some of the most significant nineteenth century reform movements include…
  • Temperance – one of the most successful reform efforts, the temperance movement worked towards reducing alcohol consumption
  • Penitentiaries and Asylums – Dorothea Dix, successfully pressed for improvements in prisons and the creation of asylum.
  • Abolitionism – as AM declined, abolitionism gathered momentum…
  • In 1816 the American Colonization Society was founded free slaves and ship them back to Africa
  • William Lloyd Garrison [publisher of The Liberator beginning in 1831] joined the more radical side he created created American Anti-Slavery Society (1833).
  • Women’s RightsAngelina and Sarah Grimké - wrote about women’s subordination to men, and by Women’s Rights Convention met, where the Declaration of Sentiments was promulgated to protest injustices against women

*Politics During the Era of Reform*
- Politics became more open to common man during this time by...
  • Many state constitutions began dropping the property rights qualifications to vote.
  • Electors began to be chosen directly by the people in many states.
  • The return of the party system in 1824 [Democratic Republicans split into Democrats and National Republicans in 1820s who become Whigs in 1832] and the rise of third parties.
  • The creation of more elected offices on the local level.
  • An increase in popular campaigning processes.


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- Election of 1824 was close with 4 people running it was thrown into the House of Reps and eventually Clay backed Adams who won and appointed Clay as his secretary of state: this was dubbed the Corrupt Bargain
- Democratic Republican party split into the…
  • National Republicans [J.Q. supporters] – the National Republicans generally favored a more involved government that had an active role in numerous aspects of peoples’ lives.
  • Democrats [Jackson supporters] –limited government intervention and they feared the concentration of economic and political power. They stressed the importance of individual freedom and were against reform


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*The Election of 1828 and Andrew Jackson’s First Term*
- In the Presidential Election of 1828, J.Q. was up against all the rabid Jackson supporters.
- National level campaign worked, Jackson became president.

Jackson as President

  • strengthened the executive branch’s power even while reducing federal power as a whole by:
  1. relying on a “Kitchen Cabinet” of his political friends instead of his official one
  2. rewarding his followers and confronting his enemies
  3. rotating officeholders [spoils system] to keep Democrats in office.

- Jackson was very anti-elitist and all reformer in sense that he returned government to majority rule.
- But the main issue during Jackson’s first term was…

*The Nullification Crisis*
- Tariff of 1828 was passed to protect New England Business but hurt the South who depended upon trade with Europe
- South Carolina began protesting the tariff and declaring their right to nullify it Calhoun, the VP supported the right to secede
- Webster Hayne Debate in 1830 debated in congress (Hayne= states right Webster= National Government)
- In 1832 Jackson passed the Force Act , which gave the president authority to call up troops to enforce the Tariff
- Calhoun created the compromise Tariff of 1833, which reduced duties and South Carolina repealed the Nullification act And Everyone thought “Hey, we won”

*The Presidential Election of 1832 and the National Bank Controversy*
- In the Presidential Election of 1832, the main issue was the early removal of the Second Bank of the United States’ charter, which was due to expire in 1836.
- Jackson was all for the bank’s removal attacking it as a center of special privilege and economic power;
- Clay wanted to recharter it.
- Jackson won

*Jackson’s Second Term: Financial Crisis*
- Jackson took money from the National bank and put it into western Wildcat banks
- Jackson and Levi Woodberry issued the Specie Circular Act which demanded land sales be made in gold or silver which lessened sale of land Congress got rid of the act in 1838

*The Second Party System*
- The Whig party was created as the oppose Democrats in the 1830’s and 40’s
- This was called the Second Party System
  • The Whigs favored an economy helped by an active central government, corporations, a national bank, and paper currency. They also supported reform – they were generally more enterprising and optimistic than the Democrats were. Whigs supporters were generally evangelical Protestants, Methodists, or Baptists – and were usually American-born or free black.
  • The Democrats favored limited central gov’t and were afraid of concentrated power. Democrat supporters were generally foreign-born Catholics, or non-evangelical Protestants.

Van Buren

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- In 1836 Van Buren Was elected
- In 1837 But the American credit system collapsed, setting off an economic depression that persisted from till 1843.
- Van Buren continued with the deflationary policies put in place by Jackson prolonging and deepening the Panic of 1837
- Van Buren became Van Ruin


1. An important consequence of the "tariff of abominations" (1828) is that it led to the
A. taxation of consumer items
B. re-election of Andrew Jackson
C. enunciation of the doctrine of nullification
D. alliance of Southern planters and Western farmers
E. expansion of the New England textile industry

2. Which of the following resulted from the policies of the Andrew Jackson administration?
A. A central bank was established.
B. The value of paper currency issued by individual banks became uniform.
C. The number of banks, each issuing its own paper currency, increased.
D. A nationwide banking system was begun.
E. Federal fiscal activities became linked to a system of federal banks.


1. C
2. C