The Civil War was a result of immense social, political and economic turmoil that had been building up in American society for the entirity of its existence. It lasted from 1861 to 1865 in which the security and the stability of the nation was threatened! While most associate the civil war with slavery, in had a plethora of stimulants. The actual civil war was an intriging era in US history, however we dont focus on the super specific battles, so LETS GO! external image smileyface.jpg

external image done.GIF QUICK SYNOPSIS OF ESCALATIONexternal image escalator-750x600.jpg

  • -John Brown’s Raid at Harpers Ferry-1859- Led an insurrection of slaves at an arsenal (in Harpers Ferry DUH!) He was convicted and hanged.
    -Election of 1860-4 PLAYERS: external image lincoln.gifexternal image breckinridge-sm.jpgexternal image USASdouglassS.jpgexternal image USACWbell.jpg
  1. Abraham Lincoln (R)
  2. Stephen Breckinridge (Southern D)
  3. Stephen Douglas (D)
  4. John Bell (Constitutional Union Party)
-Due to split Democratic vote, Lincoln won with only 39% of the popular vote THUS he was a minority President.

external image done.GIF SECESSION

1. As a result of Lincoln winning, South Carolina seceded from the Union in 1860.
2. Within months Mississippi, Florida, Louisiana, Georgia, and Alabama formed the Confederate States of America and chose Jefferson Davis as President in February 1861.external image large-davis.gif (Davis Picture at Right)
-Their Constitution resembled the Union’s with slight discrepancies:
1. Slavery and interstate slavery was allowed
2. Protective tariffs were prohibited
3. States sovereignty was completely recognized- problematic in oncoming years
4. A Presidential term was extended to 6 years


external image done.GIF SOCIAL REACTIONS

1. Northern reaction was mixed:
  • John Jay Crittenden Senator of Kentucky: Crittenden Compromise: guaranteed slavery in any state where it already existed and extended the Missouri Compromise Line of the Pacific to try to get the South back.
  • Some wanted the South to secede...
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external image done.GIF POLITICAL REACTIONS

1. Lincoln and other Republicans rejected this plan-went against FREE SOIL! >
2. Southerners would not compromise unless slavery was allowed=PROBLEM!


external image done.GIF THE WAR BEGINS...dun DUN DUN
(disease kills twice as many men as bullets)

external image Ped_arrow.JPG Fort Sumter (1860): S captured the N fort, which stirred patriotic feelings from the North! and also brought about 75,000 troops from the N!

external image Ped_arrow.JPG Then the Confederate States got bigger with the further secession of more states-Virginia, North Carolina, Tennessee, Arkansas. Also capital moved to Richmond Virginia.

external image Ped_arrow.JPG Peninsula Campaign (1861) when McClellan (union) was inching toward the federal capital-took such a long time that Lincoln put his reinforcements to another effort, thus failed.

external image Ped_arrow.JPGBattle of Bull Run (1862): realized it ain’t gonna be a short war… (Confederate Victory under Jackson) But this was not all good for the Confederates because it created a sense of overconfidence that ultimately led to a greater number of deserters and a drop off in army enlistments.After this Lincoln initiated total war:
  • suffocate south through ocean blockade
  • free slaves in south so as to undermine it's economic foundation
  • cut the Confederacy in half by seizing the Mississippi River
  • Capture Capital (Richmond)
external image Ped_arrow.JPG Second Battle of Bull Run (1862): Lee crushed General Pope's (N) army. Lee thought this would presuade the border states to join the S, yet after the next battle they refused to do so.

external image Ped_arrow.JPG Battle of Antietam (1862): Lee retreated because of McClellan’s excellent war strategies and the fact that McClelan found Lee's plans and ultimately facilitated a Union win = facilitated the Emancipation Proclamation. (This is the battle in which one of McClellan's men found Lee's plans for attack on the ground).

external image Ped_arrow.JPG Battle of Shiloh (1862): Most bloodiest battle in American history. New General Grant (union) led this. (Grant knew he could loose a lot of men, while the South could not so used this to his advantage)

First Draft in American History-1863! Rich men could dogde war by paying $300.

external image Ped_arrow.JPGBattle of Fredricksburg (1862): Union General A. E. Burnside lost badly to South

Jackson Killed by own men in 1863! (it was dark outside.)

external image Ped_arrow.JPGBattle of Vicksburg (Union GRANT captures Vicksburg) and Gettysburg (1863): the Union was turning the war around ! (Lincoln Gettysburg Address at right)external image 1st-draft.jpg

(Lincoln walking away from making speech-only pic of him making speech!)
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FUN FACT: Lincoln’s speech was only 2 MINUTES! They didn’t even
have enough time to get a picture of him. (pic is original speech at right)

external image done.GIF THE SEA

1. 1862: Merrimack (S) Vs. Monitor (N)- Confederacy attempted to break the naval blockade that Lincoln had set up. It was unsuccessful.
2. 1864: Sherman’s March to Sea: took Atlanta=”war is hell!” Used Scorched earth policy=destruction
3. 1861: Anaconda Plan: a naval blockade to prevent supplies from going into the South. Effective! (pic at bottom)

external image 300px-Anaconda_Plan.jpg

(Scott is the Union general who came up with this plan)

external image done.GIF SIGNIFICANCE OF BORDER STATES external image secede.gif

1. Delaware, Maryland, Missouri, Kentucky

2. Maryland: Union used martial law to keep army under

Kentucky: NEUTRAL

Missouri: Union troops kept South from gaining control

external image done.GIF END OF WAR ! (mighty short)

1. Lee abandoned the city of Richmond (cptl) to escape to the South BUT was cornered by Union General Grant and on APRIL 9 1865 HE SURRENDERED at Appomattox.
2. Lincoln was assassinated by John Wilkes Booth (actor) in 1865.
3. Cost $15 Billion, 600,000 men, and killed the men of America's future.


external image done.GIF DIS/ADVANTAGES OF N AND Sexternal image USAcivilBig.jpg

1. NORTH: (pink in chart)
-had most of nations wealth in its territory
-industrialized (produced guns)
-railway system was superior to S
-3:1 in population (1/3 of S population slaves=wont fight!)
-larger number of immigrants
-financial markets and banks
-90% of army were volunteers
-10% African Americans

2. SOUTH: (green in chart)
-extremely large=hard to conquer
-superior officers (ex: Robert E Lee, “Stonewall Jackson) while Union had to go through many officers before getting to Sherman and Grant.
- fighting defensively
-Jefferson Davis was an able President with political and military experience
-Lincoln seemed much less experience and inferior
-weak economy that led to a 9000% inflation rate compared to Northern 80%

external image done.GIF LINCOLN AS A LEADER
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1. Primary concern was unity of nation, even over slaves and other fights.
2. More power given to the central government by suspending habeas corpus, raising tariffs and passing other measures during the war.
3. Strengthened national bank and made national CURRENCY!
4. Main goal was to keep the border states with the Union.
5. Passed Morril Tarrif Act, increasing tarrif rates by about 5 to 10%
  1. Washington Treasury issued green backed paper money
  2. National Banking System was created: Created standard bank, note currency.
6. Election of 1864: Republicans and War Democrats formed Union Party: Lincoln, while Copperheads (vs. war) and Peace Democrats had Geroge McClellan. LINCOLN WON. (Democratic party split after death of Stephen Douglas)

MASSIVELY FUN FACT: Abraham Lincoln grew his beard out of the suggestion of an 11 year old girl!

“If I could save the union without freeing any slaves I would do it, and if I could save the union by freeing all the slaves I would do it…what I do about slavery and the color of the race I do because it helped saved the union.”external image 1-boat_th.jpg 1862

1. Trent Affair (1861): Confederates were caught on a British ship (Trent) which made the Union mad.
2. Confederates are allowed to buy warships from Britain.
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3. Cotton Diplomacy: Lincoln passed this in order to make Britain’s cotton trade fail-this didn’t work because Britain got cotton from Egypt and India.



1. Confiscation Acts (1861):
  • 1: gave government right to see slaves for insurrectionary purposes
  • 2: allowed government the ability to libreate slaves owned by someone who supported the South

2. Radical Republicans wanted immediate freedom.
3. Emancipation Proclamation: 1863-all persons in Confederate states=free. (did this when N was winning so that border states would support them) BUT allowed slavery in border states, umm PROBLEM! also allowed states to rejoin the Union without giving up slavery = another
problem. Also stated that Civil War was a war against slavery! external image aacws.jpg
4. 200,000 African Americans fought on the Union Side (in segregated units)

Some Fun and Extraordinarily Realistic AP Practice Questions!!!

1. The so-called border states at the time of the outbreak of the Civil War were those states
a. bordering the Atlantic
b. that bordered but did not join the confederacy
c. bordering the Mississippi River south of Missouri
d. bordering Canada that Confederate sympathizers could raid from Canada
e. That bordered Mexico

2. The following were important Civil War battles:
I. Saratoga
II. Gettysburg
III. Bull Run
IV. Atlanta
a. I and II
b. I II and III
c I II and IV
d. I III and IV
e. II III and IV

3. Of the states below, of which one was President Lincoln most concerned about how the population felt about the Civil war?
a. Illinois
b. Kentucky
c. Georgia
d. Mississippi
e. South Carolina

4. Which is the best explanation ofr why the South lost the Civil War?
a. They employed an excessive amount of slaves to fight
b. They had poor generals
c. They had weak support from the population
d. They had too many deserters
e. The war lasted too long

5. Hopes for a Confederate victory in the Civil War began to fade after:
a. the Battle of Antietam
b. the Emancipation Proclamination was issued
c. Lee was defeated at Gettysburg, PA
d. The Freedmen's Bureau was created by Lincoln
e. Jefferson Davis resigned

6. Which statement is LEAST accurate in describing slavery in the 1850's:
a. Slaves were generally provided with clothes, shelter and enough corn meal and pork to keep them in good health.
b. slaves performed a variety of duties and sometimes were able to escape.
c. Many overseers treated the slaves kindly in the south
d. Household slaves generally received better treatment than those in the fields
e. Most white farmers did not own slaves in the South

7. The 13th amendment contained which of the following provisions?
a. abolition of slavery throughout the United States
b. Granting the right to vote to all citizens
c. Granting citizenship to freed slaves
d. Granting equal protection of the laws to all citizens
e. the loss of voting rights for Confederate officers

8. The Anaconda stratgey to defeat the South was to:
a. march into Richmond and arrest the leaders of the Confederacy
b. defend Washington, D.C., and invade the border states
c. march ot Texas and cut off its supply of beef to the southern army
d. blockade southern ports and cut the Confederacy
e. infiltrate southern cities and spread Union propaganda

9. The Union financed the war by:
a. using tariff revenues to help pay for the military
b. printing paper money
c. excise or sales taxes on goods and services
d. selling bonds to citizens and banks
e. all of the above

10. The direct economic impact of the Civil War included all of the following except:
a. large investment losses on Wall Street
b. large fortunes made by military suppliers
c. the growth of manufacturing corporations in the North
d. Runaway inflation in the South
e. Disruption of cotton exports from the South to Great Britain

1. b
2. e
3. b
4. e
5. c
6. c
7. a
8. d
9. e
10. a